The Genealogy of the Following Families:
The Simon Family of Willebadessen, Germany, and its Descendants in America
The Barcant, Krogh, d'Abadie, and Related Families of Trinidad and Tobago
The Hurd and Clark Families of Kent County, Delaware and Caroline County, Maryland
The Dolan and Carr Families of County Tyrone, Northern Ireland; County Donegal, Ireland; and America
The McGillin Families of County Tyrone, Northern Ireland and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Levin Gregor Benedikt (aka Jacob) SimonAbt 1712 - 1771 (~ 59 years)
Name Levin Gregor Benedikt (aka Jacob) Simon Born Abt 1712 Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany Christened 5 Oct 1745 Paderborn, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany Gender Male Died Jan 1771 Willebadessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany Buried 8 Jan 1771 Willebadessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany Siblings 1 sibling Person ID I1 Simon and Related Families | Descendants of Levin Gregor Benedikt Simon Last Modified 2 Jan 2023
Father Simon [Joseph], b. Bef 1690, Beverungen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany , d. Bef 1744, Peckelsheim, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (Age ~ 54 years) Family ID F3855 Group Sheet | Family Chart
Family 1 Golde Michel Married Bef 1738 Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany Divorced 10 Dec 1745 Paderborn, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany Children + 1. Maria Ursula Theresia Simon, b. 2 Mar 1738, Löwen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany , d. 4 Feb 1812, Willebadessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (Age 73 years) 2. Maria Theresia Charlotta Simon, b. 30 Mar 1745, Germany , d. 6 Aug 1760, Willebadessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (Age 15 years) Last Modified 3 Oct 2021 Family ID F1 Group Sheet | Family Chart
Family 2 Anna Maria Franziska Wittkop, b. Apr 1727, Löwen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany , d. Jan 1793, Willebadessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (Age ~ 65 years) Married 24 Dec 1745 Löwen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany Children 1. Anna Maria Elisabeth Simon, b. 4 Feb 1747, Löwen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany , d. 15 Sep 1749, Willebadessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (Age 2 years) + 2. Johann Heinrich Simon, b. Oct 1750, Willebadessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany , d. Yes, date unknown 3. Johann Jürgen "Georg" Simon, b. May 1754, Willebadessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany , d. 17 Mar 1797, Willebadessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (Age ~ 42 years) 4. Baby Boy Simon, b. Jun 1757, Willebadessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany , d. Yes, date unknown 5. Maria Christina Simon, b. Dec 1760, Willebadessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany , d. Yes, date unknown 6. Anna Maria Elisabeth Simon, b. Dec 1760, Willebadessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany , d. Yes, date unknown 7. Johann Conrad Simon, b. 15 Aug 1763, Willebadessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany , d. 13 Nov 1825, Willebadessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany (Age 62 years) 8. Johann Joseph Simon, b. Oct 1766, Willebadessen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany , d. Yes, date unknown Documents Simon, Levin | Wittkop, Anna Maria - Marriage
Record of the marriage of Levin Gregor Benedikt Simon to Anna Maria Wittkop, 24 December 1745. From the Parish Register of St. Kilian RC Church in Löwen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany.
Simon, Levin | Wittkop, Anna Maria - Marriage - LDS Image
Record of the marriage of Levin Gregor Benedikt Simon to Anna Maria Wittkop, 24 December 1745. From the Parish Register of St. Kilian RC Church in Löwen, Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany. Imaged by the LDS, with a clearer right-hand margin.
Last Modified 26 Jan 2015 Family ID F2 Group Sheet | Family Chart
Event Map = Link to Google Earth
Documents History of the Jewish Community in Löwen - Translation
Translation of an essay on the history of the Jewish community in Löwen by Ursula Olschewski, in Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinschaften in Westfalen und Lippe. Die Ortschaften und Territorien im heutigen Regierungsbezirk Detmold, edited by Karl Hengst and Ursula Olschewski (Münster: Ardey-Verlag, 2013), pp. 793-795.
Simon, Levin Gregor Benedikt (1712-1771) - 1733 - Extract of Notarial Proceedings in the Case of the Rent Debts of Franz Brockman
Document from 1733 mentioning Jacob Simon as growing rye in a field leased by Franz Brockman, likely in lieu of interest on a debt Brockman owed to Jacob Simon. (Nordrhein-Westfalen Staatarchiv
B 501 / Domkapitel Paderborn, Nr. 234, 50 1733)
Simon, Levin Gregor Benedikt (1712-1771) - 1740 - Raising Money for the Renewal of Geleits - Jacob Simon as Manager
Document transcribed in Dina van Faassen, "Das Geleit ist Kündbar": Quellen und Aufsätze zum jüdischen Leben im Hochstift Paderborn von der Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts bis 1802 (Essen: Klartext Verlag, 1999), 214-215. In this text from May 1740, Jacob Simon of Peckelsheim is named as one of three leaders in an effort to raise money from the Jewish community in connection with the renewal of Geleits, or Escort Letters, that conveyed the permission for Jews to continue to live in their locality. As described by van Faassen, the raising of escort funds, which (due to the increasing impoverishment of the Jews) had to be covered more and more by loans, was an essential task of the organs of Jewish self-government.
This document indicates that Jacob Simon was a trusted leader in the Jewish community in 1740.
Simon, Levin Gregor Benedikt (1712-1771) - 1744 - Settlement of a Rental Dispute with the Abdinghof Abbey
Original document and transcription of a settlement (dated 23 May 1744) with the Abbot of the Abbey of Abdinghof in Paderborn, Germany, regarding a farm whose underlying land was owed by the Abbey, but whose tenant had defaulted to Jacob Simon, and for which Jacob Simon was given the house of the tenant farmer. (Landesarchiv NRW Westphalia Department / B 608 / Abdinghof Abbey, Paderborn / Akten, No. 380 / p. 26)
Simon, Levin Gregor Benedikt (1712-1771) - 1744 - Signature of Jacob Simon
Signature of Jacob Simon on a settlement (dated 23 May 1744) with the Abbot of the Abbey of Abdinghof in Paderborn, Germany, regarding a farm whose underlying land was owed by the Abbey, but whose tenant had defaulted to Jacob Simon, and for which Jacob Simon was given the house of the tenant farmer. (Landesarchiv NRW Westphalia Department / B 608 / Abdinghof Abbey, Paderborn / Akten, No. 380 / p. 26)
Extracts of the Proceedings of the Official Court of Paderborn in the Case of Golde Michel versus Jacob Simon (and Related Cases) - 1745
Extracts of four court cases surrounding the baptism of Jacob Simon and his children in October 1745. From the Landesrchiv Nordrhein-Westfalen, Abteilung Westfalen, Fürstbistum. Paderborn, Offizialatsgericht (B 410), Bd. 71/1 and 71/2 (1745). The document was located and an initial transcript made by Hans Juergen Rade and then edited and translated (with addition of the document images and color-coding to distinguish the cases involved) by Robert M. Simon.
Simon, Levin Gregor Benedikt (1712-1771) - 1745 Baptismal Record from the Records of Abdinghof Abbey
Levin Simon - Abdinghof Abbey Baptismal Record. Top entry on page records the baptism in 1745 of Jacob Simon, who was Jewish and who took the baptismal name of Levin Gregor Benedikt Simon.
Simon, Levin Gregor Benedikt (1712-1771) - 1745 Baptismal Record from the Records of Abdinghof Abbey - Detail and Translation
1745 baptismal record of Jacob Simon (afterwards known as Levin Gregor Benedikt Simon) from the registers of Abdinghof Abbey, Paderborn, with a transcript and translation.
Simon, Levin Gregor Benedikt (1712-1771) - 1745 Baptismal Record from the St. Kilian Parish Register, Löwen - Transcript and Translation
1745 baptismal records of Levin Gregor Benedikt Simon and his two daughters from the parish registers of St. Kilian, Löwen. Transcript and translation.
Simon, Levin Gregor Benedikt (1712-1771) - 1745 Baptismal Record from Löwen Parish Register - Page 1
Page 1 of two-page entry in the Löwen Parish Register detailing the conversion and baptism of Levin Simon, born Jacob Simon. This view is from a microfilm taken by the LDS Church and has a slightly more complete view of each page.
Simon, Levin Gregor Benedikt (1712-1771) - 1745 Baptismal Record from Löwen Parish Register - Page 2
Page 2 of two-page entry in the Löwen Parish Register detailing the conversion and baptism of Levin Simon, born Jacob Simon. This image was from a microfilm taken by the LDS Church.
Simon, Levin Gregor Benedikt (1712-1771) - 1771 Death Record from Willebadessen Parish Register
Death record for Levin Simon from the parish register of St. Vitus RC Church, Willebadessen.
- Year of birth would be 1712-1713, according to the age at death (58 years) given for him in the 8 January 1771 burial record for Levin Simon in Willebadessen Parish Register in Bistumarchiv Paderborn. Since the death was so early in 1771, the great likelihood is that his birth date was in 1712. Record available at https://data.matricula-online.eu/en/deutschland/paderborn/DE_EBAP_12110/KB002-04-S/?pg=4.
- Birth name given as Jacob Simon and birthplace given as Löwen in baptismal record, in Löwen Parish Register in Bistumarchiv Paderborn. LDS FHL Microfilm # 1056014. However, this document was written by a cleric in Paderborn, and may not be a reliable record of his birthplace, but rather of his place of residence in 1745. There is no mention anyone with the name "Simon" in Löwen before a 1744 mention of Jacob Simon.
- Identified as Jacob Simon, and then as Levin Simon, in numerous legal documents surrounding his decision to become baptized with his two daughters in 1745.
- Given the naming practice among Jewish Germans in the early 18th century, the birth name of Jacob Simon would have been understood by his contemporaries as meaning "Jacob son of Simon." So, these references to him by this name would indicate that Jacob's father actually had Simon as his first name. A "widow of Simon Joseph" is enumerated in the Jewish community in nearby Peckelsheim in 1744 (in the same list that mentions Jacob Simon at the end), so Simon Joseph may be the name of his father.
JEWISH ORIGINS DEMONSTRATED BY DNA ANALYSIS:
In addition to the documentary record of his baptism in 1745, DNA analysis of the Y-chromosome handed down from father to son in the Simon line shows a Y haplotype of Q-BZ25. This haplotype and the parent haplotypes from which it arose (as well as haplotypes that later diverged from it) are found only among Ashkenazi Jews.
POTENTIAL ANCESTORS OF LEVIN/JACOB SIMON:
- Levin/Jacob Simon's ancestors do not appear to be from Löwen. According to a local expert in the history of Jewish communities in the area during the 18th century (Ms. Dina van Faassen of the Scriptorium in Münster), in 1704 a report on Jewish families throughout the Princely Archbishopric of Paderborn was made. [Citation she provided: StA MS, Fürstentum Paderborn, Hofkammer, No. 3310; transcribed in Dina Van Faassen, "Das Geleit ist kündbar": Quellen und Aufsätze zum jüdischen Leben im Hochstift Paderborn von der Mitte des 17. Jahrhunderts bis 1802 (Essen: Klartext Verlag, 1999), p. 117.] Only two Jewish families were listed in this report as living in Löwen:
> Berndt Abraham, with his wife Mergen, his sons Davidt and Joseph, and a daughter Mergen.
> Hertz Abraham, widower, with a son Soistman. It is possible that Soistman Hertz could be the father of Gutele Soistman, Levin's mother-in-law.
This account is supported by a historical essay on the history of the Jewish community in Löwen by Ursula Olschewski, a translation of which appears in the "Documents" section. Thus, Jacob Simon's parents must have moved to Löwen after 1704 and before 1713, if Jacob Simon was born there. But as noted above, the statement that he was born in Löwen may not be reliable, especially since no probable ancestors are identified in Olschewski's historical essay.
- The nearest larger Jewish community that might have had a synagogue would have been in the town of Peckelsheim, only a few miles away. There are several records of persons bearing the name Simon family in Peckelsheim in the late 1600s and early 1700's.
> A Generalgeleit (or general escort letter) for the Jews generally resident in the diocese of Paderborn was renewed by the Prince-Archbishop Ferdinand II on 15 April 1681, and listed all of the persons subject to the Generalgeliet by locality. This document is transcribed in Dina Van Faassen, "Das Geleit ist kündbar", pp. 37-40. In Peckelsheim, of the 13 Jews named, two individuals named Simon are listed.
> In 1716, the Princely Court of Paderborn imposed a payment for an annual "Jewish Sacrifice," to benefit the Catholic pastor in Peckelsheim. One florint each was demanded from Jacob Simon, Simon Abraham, Joseph Simon and Berendt Simon, and from the rest "poorly well-to-do," viz., Levi Simon, widow Judah Marcus, and Levi Jacob, 18 groschen each. This payment is described in Margit Naarmann, "Willebadessen-Peckelsheim," in Karl Hengst and Ursula Olschewski (eds.), Historisches Handbuch der jüdischen Gemeinschaften in Westfalen und Lippe. Die Ortschaften und Territorien im heutigen Regierungsbezirk Detmold (Münster, Ardley-Verlag, 2013), p. 796.
> In 1744, the following Jewish persons were named as living in Peckelsheim, in a document summarized in Margit Naarmann, "Willebadessen-Peckelsheim," p. 797:
-- Joseph Simon
-- Leiffmann Simon and his wife from Rotenburg in Hesse-Kassel
-- Leiffmann Marcus and his wife from Willebadessen
-- Levi Joseph and his wife from Mansbach in Hessen, along with his self-employed brother Moyses Joseph and his sister Sara
-- the widow of Arend Simon
-- the widow (born in Warburg) of Simon Joseph
-- Jacob Leffmann and his wife from Polle in Hanover
-- Abraham Simon and his wife from Grosseneder
-- Itzig Joseph and his wife from Hofgeismar
-- Juda Heinemann (born in Niedenstein in Hesse) and his wife, the daughter of Calmen Schmuel from Warburg
-- Michel Leiffmann (originally from Wurzburg) and his wife from Peckelsheim
-- Seligmann Nathan (originally from Brandenburg) and his wife, the daughter of Leiffmann Moyses from Warburg
-- the widow of Meyer Simon
-- the wife of Moyses Simon
-- Arend Moyses (born in Grosseneder)
-- the married Jacob Simon, in whose house a "schoolmaster from Prague" lived.
> According to the records of the Paderborn Diocesan Archive, there are also records in that archive of Simons in Peckelsheim (Letter from the archdiocesan archivist to Robert Simon, 1994).
- In another document, which is dated 4 May 1740 (7 Iyyar), records a loan to the local Jews of the Paderborn area to cover the cost of maintaining their Geleits (a type of "permission slip" [which could also be translated as "trespassing permit"] for Jews to live in a given area) from the Prince-Bishopric of Paderborn. The document mentions three collectors, including "Jacob Simon von Pickellsheim." This document is in Dina Van Faassen, "Das Geleit ist kündbar", p. 214.
- There is also documentation of a Simon family in Beverungen, another nearby town. Two members of this family mentioned with some specificity were a Joseph Simon of Beverungen, alive as an adult in 1706 [Dina Van Faassen, "Das Geleit is kundbar", p. 208], and a Joseph Simon of Beverungen, born in 1710. In 1745, as Jacob Simon was being sued by his first wife, he was the defendant in a second suit by Bendix Joseph on behalf of the heirs of Joseph Simon of Beverungen. Since Bendix Joseph was likely to be a family member, and since he was unlikely to be the son of the Joseph Simon born in 1710, he may have been the son of the earlier Joseph Simon.
Directions for Further Research
- Given that there was a deceased "Simon Joseph" whose widow was living in Peckelsheim in 1744, it is possible that Simon Joseph was the name of Jacob Simon's father. If this is the case, it raises the intriguing possibility that the lawsuit brought by Bendix Joseph was being brought by the uncle of Jacob Simon, and that Joseph Simon of Beverungen was his grandfather.
- Full date and location given in a two-page entry in the baptismal register (Taufen, 1745, pages 54-55) of St. Kilian RC Church. The two pages are available here and here, and in a microfilm copy made by the LDS Church (LDS FHL Microfilm # 1056014). Three records interleaved into the baptismal register of St. Kilian Church attest to conversion of Jacob Simon from Judaism to Roman Catholicism on 5 October 1745. Jacob's new baptismal name was "Levinum Gregorium Benedictum Simon." His baptismal witness (Lat: patrino) was given as "Excellentissimo Domino Wilhelma de Vogelius, Serenitatis sua Electoralis Colomensis per Dioecesin Paderbornensem Cancellario." This person is certainly Gerhard Georg Wilhelm Vogel [aka Vogelius] (1708-1755), who was the Vice-Chancellor of the Princely Archbishopric of Paderborn at the time. It is unclear whether his designation as a baptismal sponsor was an honorary designation or whether he served as an actual witness--having distinguished personages as honorary baptismal witnesses was not unknown at the time, according to the Archivist of the Generalvikariat-Diozesan Archive in Paderborn, who was interviewed by Simon relative Heinrich Rohde. According to the baptismal records, at the time of his baptism, Levin Simon was a resident of Löwen. The baptism took place at the Benedictine abbey of Abdinghof, in Paderborn. This abbey was closed during the secularization of Westphalia by the Prussians in about 1803.
- A second record of the baptism is in the records of Abdinghof Abbey itself. These records were collected with the records of the Gaukirche Sankt Ulrich, Paderborn, and are also located in the Bistumarchiv Paderborn. LDS FHL Microfilm # 1050943. On a page titled "De Baptismo," the top entry is as follows: "Anno 1745. non quá Pastor, Sed quá delegatus á Rm's D. Vicaris generali Paderborn. baptizam Hebraeum Nomine Jacob Simon - Deinde". This entry confirms that of the Löwen Parish Register, establishing the Jewish heritage of Jacob Simon, and confirming the involvement of the Paderborn government in his baptism. The final word in the entry, "Deinde," might be translated "of this place." It might indicate that Levin Simon was a resident of Paderborn at the time.
- Various records of children's baptisms give his post-baptismal name as Levin Simon, Levin Simons, and Levin Siemens.
- Wife named as Golde Michel (and variant spellings of Michel) in legal records of the Fürstbistum Paderborn. On 1 October 1745, along with her mother Gütele Soestman from Löwen, she filed a legal action against her husband in the church tribunal (Offizialatsgericht) in Paderborn to prevent his baptism and the baptisms of their daughters. But she failed. There are no process files, but several entries about the process in the protocols of the church tribunal--nearly every two or three days there was a new step in the legal proceedings. The protocols are kept in the Landesarchiv Nordrhein-Westfallen, Abteilung Westfalen, Fürstbistum Paderborn, Offizialatsgericht, vol. 71/2 (1745).
- This set of legal proceedings ended with a declaration by Golde Michel on 1 December 1745 that she would remain in the Jewish faith and that she demanded a divorce and the return of her bridal dowry. On 9 December 1745, Levin Simon agreed to these terms. On 10 December 1745, the Princely Court of Paderborn issued a decree of divorce.
- Second wife named as Anna Maria Wittkop and full date given as 24 December 1745 in Löwen Parish Register in Bistumarchiv Paderborn. LDS FHL Microfilm # 1056014. Witnesses-- Joannes Gluntz and Conrad Kinen (both of whom were married to Wittkops, and both of whom were probably brothers-in-law of Anna Maria Wittkop). Consistent with the information in the above-mentioned Offizialatsgericht, this marriage record states that Levin Simon had a prior wife who wished to remain in Judaism.
- The document for this second marriage (with supplied letters for abbreviations in square brackets) reads in Latin:
Levinus Gregorius Benedictus Simon conversus baptizatus, cum prior uxor in judaismo permanere voluerit, et honesta virgo Anna Maria Wittkop ex Lowen acceptis clandestinis tam in tempore vetito quam proclamationibus, viso mandato copulandi ex judicio R[everen]dissimi Officialatus Paderbornensis. Testes Joes Gluntz at Conradus Kinen Lowenses. Assistens p[ro]prius fuit parochus.
- This translates approximately to:
Levin Gregory Benedict Simon, baptized convert, with his former wife wishing to remain in Judaism, and honest virgin Anna Maria Wittkop from Lowen, taken during the forbidden time (probably a reference to a marriage during Advent) and now proclaimed, having mandate for the union from the Most Excellent Official Court of Paderborn. Witnesses Joes Gluntz and Conrad Kinen of Lowen. The pastor was his own assistant.
- A notorial extract of a register, dated 25 February 1733, concerning the default of a debtor named Frantz Brockman from Peckelsheim, mentions in passing that a field that Brockman had leased in the vicinity of Peckelsheim (and then was apparently subleased by him as interest on a debt) had been planted in 1732 in 2 Morgens and 1 Garth (approximately 1.5 acres) of rye by the "Jude [Jew] Jacob Simon." This suggests that Jacob Simon was resident in the vicinity of Peckelsheim in 1732, when he would have been 20 years of age. The record mentions antichresis in this regard--the practice of allowing the use of a piece of property in lieu of interest owned on a debt--so indicates that Jacob Simon had lent money to Brockman. If he was able to lend money at age 20 and farm land as a result, he certainly would have had an Escort Pass (in German, Geleit), and probably some degree of wealth even at this age.(Nordrhein-Westfalen Staatarchiv / B 501 / Domkapitel Paderborn / Nr. 234,50 / 1733)
- On 23 May 1744, Jacob Simon signed a settlement with the Abbot of the Abbey of Abdinghof in Paderborn concerning payments from a tenant farm in Grosseneder (4 miles from Lowen) whose previous tenant had defaulted to Jacob Simon. The agreement provided that Jacob Simon would make a preliminary payment to the Abbey (which owned the underlying land) and then find a new tenant who would pay the Abbey's annual rent (consisting of 4 schillings, 4 chickens, and 80 eggs). The agreement was for a term of 8 years, during which Simon presumably also received other rent from the new tenant farmer. The document features a signature by Jacob Simon. (Landesarchiv NRW Westphalia Department / B 608 / Abdinghof Abbey, Paderborn / Akten, No. 380 / pp. 23-26)
- Listed as one of four Jewish residents of Löwen in 1744, as referenced in Ursula Olschewski, "Willebadessen-Löwen," in Karl Hengst and Ursula Olschewski, Historisches Handbuch der Jüdischen Geminschaften in Westfalen und Lippe: Die Ortschaften und Territorien im heutigen Regierungsbezirk Detmold (Munster: Ardley-Verlag, 2013), 794, available at https://www.lwl.org/hiko-download/HiKo_Neue_Folge_010_(2021).pdf.
- Löwen Catholic Parish Register shows him as a resident from 1745-1747.
- First record in Willebadessen Parish Register is of legitimate child's birth in October 1750, so his move to Willebadessen must have occurred prior to that. No further mention of his immediate family in the Löwen Parish Register after 1747.
DEATH: January 1771 death date inferred from date of burial record in Willebadessen Parish Register in Bistumarchiv Paderborn (see below). LDS FHL Microfilm # 1056021.
BURIAL: Full date of 8 January 1771 given in Willebadessen Parish Register in Bistumarchiv Paderborn. LDS FHL Microfilm # 1056021. Record also available at https://data.matricula-online.eu/en/deutschland/paderborn/DE_EBAP_12110/KB002-04-S/?pg=4. Age at death given as 58 years.
OTHER RESEARCH DIRECTIONS:
- The baptismal record for Levin Simon mentions a decree for his baptism from the Vicar General of the Archdiocese of Paderborn, given in Latin as "Domini de Widenbruck" and known from other sources to be Ignatz von Widenbruck, originally from Natzungen. An inquiry has been made to the Archdiocesan Archives in Paderborn to see if there is any record of this decree.